Mariner 9 Photomosaic Globe of Mars

mariner9

Mosaic made of 1500 Mariner 9 images. This is one of three globes each made manually.

Size: 48in. (121.9cm)

Date 1973

Material: paper photos on aluminum

6-foot copy: Displayed in  von Karman auditorium of the JPL campus in Pasadena,

4-foot copies:  On Display at the Smithsonian Museum, Washington, DC (2017), California and Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

Description (source): “This photomosaic globe of Mars was produced at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory using photographs from the Mariner 9 spacecraft that imaged the red planet from orbit from 14 November 1971 to 27 October 1972. This globe represents not only the first photomosaic globe of Mars ever made, but the first such photomosaic made of any planetary body. Over 1500 photos were used to produce the original. Each image had to be computer processed to produce consistent shading and to give it the proper geometry for its placement on the globe, and then cut by hand so it could be mosaicked with other overlapping images without interfering with important surface features. The finished globe was then sprayed with a clear protective coating.The original globe was rephotographed in 452 rectangual segments so that copies could be made of the globe through a simple and straightforward process. The globes were completed in September 1973.”

“The originals varied enormously, of course, so once more the computer had to work them over. Finally, it turned out that rectangular photographs were useless because they couldn’t be fitted properly to a spherical surface. The computer couldn’t help with this part of the project; so the irregular pieces needed for actual gluing on the globes were laboriously cut by hand from the large photos.”

 

Cartographers: Elmer Christensen, aided by mathematician Sally Rubsamen, photomosaicist Earl Zimmerman, and photographer Duane Patterson.

References

  • Corneille P 2005 Mapping the planet Mars. Spaceflight 47, 270-274
  • Martian Map Makers.  Engineering and Science, 37 (1). pp. 8-9. ISSN 0013-7812 October 1973

 

marinerassembly.jpg

Earl Zimmerman assembling one of the 4-inch globes. NASA/JPL/Engineering and Science

mariner9c

“Scientist Elmer Christensen (right) points to last photographic piece that completed the first photo-mosaic globe of Mars assembled at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Looking on is Edwin Pounder, manager of the Mariner 9 Mars project at JPL.” . September 1973. NASA 73-H-848

mariner9d.jpg

“Gluing down a section is perhaps the most delicate step in the whole process. To do exact matching, a scalpel-like blade is used to trim ‘overlapping sections along feature lines, so that each blends imperceptibly with the others around it.” Engineering and Science

mariner9e.jpg

The 6-inch large globe that represents the previous knowlegde of Mars showing albedo markings onto which photographs were glued. (Engineering and Science)

Explanation
Column name Column description
Catalog ID (M) N/A
Title Title of map
Author Name of mapper(s), or author, PI, map editor, illustrator, etc. with roles
Nationality Nationality of author
Start date Year when mapping began / or year or observation
Date of publication Year of publication or completion of manusctipt (empty if not published yet)
Body Target name (planetary body)
Online Online references about the map
Projection Projection of map. 2-hemisphere is shown here.
Scale N/A
Orientation Orientation of map [north up, south up] – only for historic maps (north: cartographic tradition, south: astronomical tradition)
Publication type The type of work that contains the map. [standalone, journal, conference, atlas, book figure, book supplement, book plate, encyclopedia, multisheet, digital]
Type, purpose Type of map purpose [generic, outreach, science, citizen, surface operation (pre mission), landing site (post mission), observer, opposition, index, reference, eclipse/transit/occultation] generic: not defined, outreach: maps for the general public made b
Primary Nomenclature Laguage(s) of nomenclature displayed on the map [Latin, English etc., IAU, informal]. Latin for Latin nomenclature prior to IAU.
Ref (map) Full reference of map publication or publication that contains the map
DOI DOI number of map
ID (publication) ID of map publication or figure number
Origin type If this map is not original, the following codes are used: [L: language variant, N: new print, U: updated edition, C: copied / modified from another map, R: renovation map (digital version of paper map with slight changes), F facsimile. RP: republished in
Origin ID Any maps that this map is based on or copied from. Database ID of original map.
Based on map Name of mapper
Base (spacecraft, telescope) Name of spacecraft / instrument
Original title Title of map in original langage (if not English)
Publisher Name of Publisher; manuscript or self-published. For journals and conferences, the name of the journal or conference.
Coverage Coverage of map [global, hemispheric, regional, local, landing site, landing ellipse, traverse]
Target location IAU name of target feature (if named) or near side, far side etc. (If nothing noted, it is global)
Country Country of Publisher (original/translation)
Type, content Type of map [photo, map, sketch map, drawing, globe, tactile, data]. Data for raster datasets. For vector data, see Feature DB. Drawing: no grid, scale, projection etc.
Image base Base theme of the map [shaded relief, photomosaic, photo, none]
Theme Theme of map [visual, albedo, radar, low sun, topography, elevation, geology, geomorphology, art, nomenclature reference, feature, landing site reference, opposition map, event (eclipse etc) etc.]. Low sun is optical photo with shadows and no albedo. Vis
Technique Cartographic technique [imagemap, datamap, cartographic map, unit map, airbrush, pencil, line drawing/outline, contour lines, DEM, DIM, shaded relief / hillshading, raster data etc.]
Style Details on style
Method Method how the data was obtained
Mapping scale Scale of mapping
Resolution Raster dataset resoltion [m/pixel]
Short Reference Short form of reference to the map publication
GIS / data URL where GIS or original spatial data is
Data provider N/A
Profession Profession of author (for historic maps)
Designator Sheet designator terms following Greeley and Batson (1990) Planetary Mapping. Cambridge University Press. – only if displayed on the map. First letter: target body, 5M: scale, 90/0 etc: center coordinates, OM – orthophotomosaic , T – Topographic data (nom
Control Controlled, semi-controlled, uncontrolled
Note on control Base of control
Series title Title of map series
Number of maps (in work) N/A
Number of quads N/A
Quad ID Quad ID (or quads IDs) contained on the map
Map Diameter N/A
Map width cm N/A
Map height cm N/A
Map width px N/A
Map height px N/A
Base type Type of instrument of observation of base data [naked eye, telescope, spacecraft, space telescope, lander]
Location of copy Library or archive where manuscript or rare copy is kept
Ref (literature) Reference – literature about the map, may be the source of data if the map is not available. Separated with # symbols.
Status (2017) Status of mapping [complete, in progress, in review] (mostly for USGS maps)
Aim Original aim of mapping, if available
Notes Any comments, remarks [Long text, may be multiple paragraphs]
Secondary nomenclature Other languages of the nomenclature
Nomenclature Notes Remarks on nomenclature
Photo note N/A
Reference frame ID from RefFrames
web2 Online references about the map
web3 Online references about the map
web4 Online references about the map
ocentric/ographic Map coordinate [planetographic, planetocentric]
N N/A
S N/A
W 360E N/A
E 360E N/A
W 180 N/A
E 180 N/A
W 360W N/A
R 360W N/A
fig1 N/A
fig1 caption N/A
fig2 N/A
fig2 caption N/A
fig3 N/A
fig3 caption N/A
fig4 N/A
fig4 caption N/A
fig5 N/A
fig5 caption N/A
STATUS N/A
Sum $180