IAU 1964

( the following is excerpted from the book published by Academic Press in 1966)


Edited by
General Secretary of the Union

from pp. 202-205


D. W. G. Arthur

The lunar nomenclature proposed by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory of thc University of Arizona is a revised and extended form of that of Blagg and Müller, which was authorized by the Union in 1932. We have attempted to eliminate certain illogical and inconvenient situations in the Blagg and Müller scheme, but all major changes are restricted to the extreme limb regions where the Blagg and Müller scheme, and for that matter, all previous maps, are somewhat unrealistic. The scheme is based on a lengthy and thorough survey of the best available photographs and is embodied in the following documents.

(i) The System of Lunar Craters, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. This work is in four parts with a catalog and map for each of the four lunar quadrants.

(ii) Lunar and Planetary Designations, Arthur and Agnieray, University of Arizona Press. A two-color map in four parts.

(iii) The Rectified Lunar Atlas, Whitaker et al. University of Arizona Press. This gives the names but not the letters.

(iv) The L.A.C. lunar topographic maps at 1: 1 000 000 of the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center of the U.S. Air Force. These are available by subscription.

The above indicates that the proposed scheme is not subject to the drawback of limited distribution, which somewhat hampered the diffusion and acceptance of the Blagg and Müller nomenclature.

As already stated, no major changes were made in the central areas of the disk, except the deletion of a few names which were duplicated elsewhere. In these areas we merely intensified the existing scheme by adding additional letters. The situation near the limb is basically different in that recent intensive cartographic work, coupled with a changeover to conformal projection, makes the Blagg and Müller scheme quite inadequate for contemporary lunar cartography. To eliminate some serious and widespread difficulties, some 6o new names were added in the extreme limb regions. Almost all of these fall in areas which are very poorly represented in all the older maps.

The demands of tradition and continuity were given full weight throughout, even though these often prevented the development of a completely logical scheme of lunar nomenclature.

Table I : New names


Name Approximate position of center Diameter (Unit 0.001 R) Previous identifications
Abel 85.5 E 34.5 S 50 Abel (Franz 225)
Amundsen 93.0 E 84.0 S 55 Amundsen (Wilkins and Moore)
Aston 87.5 W 33.0 N 25 Ulugh Beigh E (IAU 1897a) = (Franz 795)
Baade 82.5 W 45.0 S 26 Inghirami D (IAU 2251) = Hall (Franz
Balboa 83.5 W 19.0 N 40
Balmer 70.0 E 20.0 S 75
Banachiewicz 80.5 E 5.5 N 63
Barnard 86.5 E 29.5 S 60
Belkovich 87.0 E 61.5 N 105
Bohr 86.5 W 12.5 N 50
Boltzmann 96.0 W 75.5 S 40
Boole 85.0 W 64.0 N 37
Boss 89.5 E 46.0 N 27
Brianchon 85.0 W 74.5 N 72 Carpenter C (IAU 1695) = Anaximander d (Franz 547)
Bunsen 85.5 W 41.0 N 44
Byrd 10.0 E 85.0 N 52 Gioja A (IAU 1018a)
Cannon 81.5 E 20.0 N 31 Alhazen F (IAU 25)
Cremona 86.0 W 67.5 N 55
Dalton 84.5 W 17.0 N 35
Desargues 73.5 W 70.5 N 55 Anaximander C (IAU 1693) (misprinted? as Anaximander) = Anaximander p (Franz 555)
De Sitter 38.0 E 79.5 N 37 Euctemon J (IAU 999c)
Drygalski 82.0 W 79.5 S 97 Casatus G (IAU 3294a) = Drygalski (Fauth) = Cabeus (Franz 839)= Casatus (Schr.)
Dubiago 70.0 E 4.5 N 21 Neper A (IAU 7)
Eddington 72.0 W 22.0 N 77 Otto Struve A (IAU 1902)
Einstein 88.5 W 16.5 N 100
Fermi 89 .5 W 7.5 N 48
Gibbs 84.5 E 18.5 S 40 Hecataeus D (IAU 4752)
Gilbert 76.5 E 3.5 S 63
Gill 77.0 E 63.5 S 35
Goddard 89.0 E 15.0 N 43 Mare Marginis k (Franz 1274)
Hale 90.0 E 74.5 S 48
Hamilton 84.0 E 42.5 S 32 Marinus K (IAU 4559a) = Kelvin (Franz
Hartwig 80.5 W 6.5 S 50 Possibly Riccioli E (IAU 1964)
Hayn 84.0 E 64.5 N 46 Strabo G (IAU 424e)
Hedin 76.5 W 3.0 N 74 Sven Hedin (Fauth)
Hermite 80.0 W 86.0 N 65
Hubble 86.5 E 22.0 N 42 Plutarch A (IAU 26a) = Plutarch (Franz
Jansky 90.0 E 8.5 N 35
Jeans 94.0 E 57.0 S So Mare Australe q (Franz 1357)
Kapteyn 70.5 E 10.5 S 29 Lapeyrouse B (lAU 4769)
Krasnov 80.0 W 30.0 S 23 Lagrange F (IAU 2228)=(Franz 837)
Lamarck 70.0 W 22.5 S 55 Southern part of Darwin (lAU 2081)
Lamé 64.5 E 14.5 S 46 Vendelinus C (IAU 4699)
Langley 86.5 W 51.0 N 37 Regnault (Schm.)
Liapunov 90.0E 26.5 N 36 Timoleon (Schm.)
Lyot 84.0 E 50.5 S 63 Brisbane G (IAU 4540b)
Markov 62.5 W 53.5 N 24 Oenopides A (IAU 1713)
Moseley 91.0 W 21.0 N 45
Nansen 88.0 E 80.5 N 60 Contains Franz’s points 468 and 469
Pascal 68.5 W 74.5 N 63 Carpenter D (IAU 1361 and 1694) =
Anaximander c (Franz 546)
Peary 20.0 E 87.5 N 50 Gioja B (IAU 1018b)
Planck 87.0 W 8.0 N 45
Poncelet 54.0 W 75.5 N 40 Anaximenes F (IAU 1359a) = (Franz 562)
Rayleigh 89.5 E 29.0 N 52
Riemann 87.5 E 39.5 N 60
Rontgen 89.0 W 33.0 N 56
Russell 75.5 W 26.5 N 55 Northern part of Otto Struve (IAU 1901)
Schlüter 83.5 W 6.0 S So Malvasia (Schr.) Floor contains Mare Hiemis (lAU 1975a). Possibly=Riccioli A (IAU 1962)
Scott 47.0 E 82.5 S 6o Scott (Wilkins and Moore)
Shaler 85.0 W 33.0 S 22
Stefan* 94.0 W 72.0 S 78
Stokes 89.0 W 72.0 N 35
Sylvester 79.5 W 82.5 N 35 Philolaus p (Franz 730)
Volta 85.0 W 53.5 N 65
Wright 86.5 W 31.5 S 22
Joliot-Curie 93.0 E 25.5 N 82 Note: Floor contains Mare Novum (IAU 140a}, which is Joliot-Curie of the Soviet Lunik III photography.

*Possibly not a true formation.

Explanation of symbols

IAU : Blagg and Müller, Named Lunar Formations, 1935
Schm. Schmidt, J., Charte der Gebirge des Mondes, 1878
Schr. Schröter, Selenotopographische Fragmente, 1791 and 1802
R = lunar radius

Table 2 : Nomenclature revisions



J. Cassini, Mare Novum, W. Pickering, Schneckenberg


Montes Rook

Additions (see also Table I)

Rupes Cauchy, Rupes Kelvin, Rupes Liebig, Vallis Baade, Vallis Inghirami, Mare Cognitum

Changed outlines

Anaximander, Darwin, Hecateus, Meton, Struve

Changed identifications

Brisbane, Regnault, Ulugh Beigh

Spelling changes etc.

La Caille, La Condamine, La Hire, La Pérouse, Le Gentil, Le Monnier, Le Verrier, Regnault, Mare Struve, Struve


Mons Argaeus, Montes Apenninus, Montes Carpatus, Montes Caucasus, Montes Cordillera, Montes D’Alembert, Montes Doerfel, Montes Haemus, Montes Harbinger, Montes Hercynii, Montes Jura, Montes Leibnitz, Montes Pyrenaeus, Montes Recti, Montes Riphaeus, Montes Rook, Montes Taurus, Montes Teneriffe, Vallis Alpes, Vallis Rheita, Vallis Schröteri, Rupes Altai, Rupes Cauchy, Rupes Recta, Rima Ariadaeus, Rima Byrgius, Rima Hyginus, Rima Sirsalis, Prom. Fresnel, Prom. Kelvin.

Une discussion genérale à lieu a laquelie participent notamment MM. Arthur, Dollfus, le Père Hoyden, Hopman, Kopal, Martynov, Menzel, Rackham, Rösch, Shoemaker, Tombaugh, Wildt.

Ii est recornmandé d’éviter de faire précéder les noms propres par les initailes de prénoms lorsque cellos-ci ne sont pas nécessaires.

Le rapport précédent est adopté.

L’impact de la sonde spatiale Range VII dans la région sombre lunaire elliptique comprise entre les cratères Guéricke, Bompland, Darney et Montes Riphaeus a attiré l’attention sur le fait quo cette mer n’était pas clairement dénommée.
Le Professeur Kuiper propose deux noms possibles: Mare Exploratum ou Mare Cognitum.

Apres one attentive discussion, la désignation Mare Cognitum est retenue.

Le comité `Nomenclature et Cartographic de la Surface Lunaire’ est maintenu avec sa composition initiale complétée par le Dr Arthur.

Column name Column description
Catalog ID (M) N/A
Title Title of map
Author Name of mapper(s), or author, PI, map editor, illustrator, etc. with roles
Nationality Nationality of author
Start date Year when mapping began / or year or observation
Date of publication Year of publication or completion of manusctipt (empty if not published yet)
Body Target name (planetary body)
Online Online references about the map
Projection Projection of map. 2-hemisphere is shown here.
Scale N/A
Orientation Orientation of map [north up, south up] – only for historic maps (north: cartographic tradition, south: astronomical tradition)
Publication type The type of work that contains the map. [standalone, journal, conference, atlas, book figure, book supplement, book plate, encyclopedia, multisheet, digital]
Type, purpose Type of map purpose [generic, outreach, science, citizen, surface operation (pre mission), landing site (post mission), observer, opposition, index, reference, eclipse/transit/occultation] generic: not defined, outreach: maps for the general public made b
Primary Nomenclature Laguage(s) of nomenclature displayed on the map [Latin, English etc., IAU, informal]. Latin for Latin nomenclature prior to IAU.
Ref (map) Full reference of map publication or publication that contains the map
DOI DOI number of map
ID (publication) ID of map publication or figure number
Origin type If this map is not original, the following codes are used: [L: language variant, N: new print, U: updated edition, C: copied / modified from another map, R: renovation map (digital version of paper map with slight changes), F facsimile. RP: republished in
Origin ID Any maps that this map is based on or copied from. Database ID of original map.
Based on map Name of mapper
Base (spacecraft, telescope) Name of spacecraft / instrument
Original title Title of map in original langage (if not English)
Publisher Name of Publisher; manuscript or self-published. For journals and conferences, the name of the journal or conference.
Coverage Coverage of map [global, hemispheric, regional, local, landing site, landing ellipse, traverse]
Target location IAU name of target feature (if named) or near side, far side etc. (If nothing noted, it is global)
Country Country of Publisher (original/translation)
Type, content Type of map [photo, map, sketch map, drawing, globe, tactile, data]. Data for raster datasets. For vector data, see Feature DB. Drawing: no grid, scale, projection etc.
Image base Base theme of the map [shaded relief, photomosaic, photo, none]
Theme Theme of map [visual, albedo, radar, low sun, topography, elevation, geology, geomorphology, art, nomenclature reference, feature, landing site reference, opposition map, event (eclipse etc) etc.]. Low sun is optical photo with shadows and no albedo. Vis
Technique Cartographic technique [imagemap, datamap, cartographic map, unit map, airbrush, pencil, line drawing/outline, contour lines, DEM, DIM, shaded relief / hillshading, raster data etc.]
Style Details on style
Method Method how the data was obtained
Mapping scale Scale of mapping
Resolution Raster dataset resoltion [m/pixel]
Short Reference Short form of reference to the map publication
GIS / data URL where GIS or original spatial data is
Data provider N/A
Profession Profession of author (for historic maps)
Designator Sheet designator terms following Greeley and Batson (1990) Planetary Mapping. Cambridge University Press. – only if displayed on the map. First letter: target body, 5M: scale, 90/0 etc: center coordinates, OM – orthophotomosaic , T – Topographic data (nom
Control Controlled, semi-controlled, uncontrolled
Note on control Base of control
Series title Title of map series
Number of maps (in work) N/A
Number of quads N/A
Quad ID Quad ID (or quads IDs) contained on the map
Map Diameter N/A
Map width cm N/A
Map height cm N/A
Map width px N/A
Map height px N/A
Base type Type of instrument of observation of base data [naked eye, telescope, spacecraft, space telescope, lander]
Location of copy Library or archive where manuscript or rare copy is kept
Ref (literature) Reference – literature about the map, may be the source of data if the map is not available. Separated with # symbols.
Status (2017) Status of mapping [complete, in progress, in review] (mostly for USGS maps)
Aim Original aim of mapping, if available
Notes Any comments, remarks [Long text, may be multiple paragraphs]
Secondary nomenclature Other languages of the nomenclature
Nomenclature Notes Remarks on nomenclature
Photo note N/A
Reference frame ID from RefFrames
web2 Online references about the map
web3 Online references about the map
web4 Online references about the map
ocentric/ographic Map coordinate [planetographic, planetocentric]
W 360E N/A
E 360E N/A
W 180 N/A
E 180 N/A
W 360W N/A
R 360W N/A
fig1 N/A
fig1 caption N/A
fig2 N/A
fig2 caption N/A
fig3 N/A
fig3 caption N/A
fig4 N/A
fig4 caption N/A
fig5 N/A
fig5 caption N/A
Sum $180